Photo: Pew Hispanic Report
Among the 50.7 million Hispanics in the United States, nearly two-thirds (65%), or 33 million, self-identify as being of Mexican origin, according to tabulations of the 2010 American Community Survey (ACS) by the Pew Hispanic Center, a project of the Pew Research Center. No other Hispanic subgroup rivals the size of the Mexican-origin population. Puerto Ricans, the nation’s second largest Hispanic origin group, make up just 9% of the total Hispanic population in the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Overall, the 10 largest Hispanic origin groups——Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Cubans, Salvadorans, Dominicans, Guatemalans, Colombians, Hondurans, Ecuadorians and Peruvians——make up 92% of the U.S. Hispanic population. Six Hispanic origin groups have populations greater than 1 million.
Hispanic origin groups differ from each other in a number of ways. For instance, U.S. Hispanics of Mexican origin have the lowest median age, at 25 years, while Hispanics of Cuban origin have the highest median age, at 40 years. Colombians are the most likely to have a college degree (32%) while Salvadorans are the least likely (7%). Ecuadorians have the highest annual median household income ($50,000) while Dominicans have the lowest ($34,000). Half of Hondurans do not have health insurance——the highest share among Hispanic origin groups. By contrast, just 15% of Puerto Ricans do not have health insurance.
Hispanic origin groups also differ in their geographic concentration. The nation’s Cuban population is the most concentrated——nearly half (48%) live in Florida’s Miami-Dade County. Miami-Dade County is also home to the nation’s largest Colombian, Honduran and Peruvian communities. For Mexicans, Salvadorans and Guatemalans, Los Angeles County in California contains each group’s largest community. The largest Puerto Rican and Dominican communities are in Bronx County, New York. The largest Ecuadorian community is in Queens County, New York.
Hispanic origin is based on self-described family ancestry or place of birth in response to questions in the Census Bureau’s American Community Survey. It is not necessarily the same as place of birth, nor is it indicative of immigrant or citizenship status. For example, a U.S. citizen born in Los Angeles of Mexican immigrant parents or grandparents may (or may not) identify his or her country of origin as Mexico. Likewise, some immigrants born in Mexico may identify another country as their origin depending on the place of birth of their ancestors.
The data for this report are derived from the U.S. Census Bureau’s 2010 American Community Survey, which provides detailed geographic, demographic and economic characteristics for each group.
Accompanying this report are profiles of the 10 largest Hispanic origin sub-groups and an interactive graphic showing characteristics and top counties for each group.
The report, “The 10 Largest Hispanic Origin Groups: Characteristics, Rankings, Top Counties,” authored by Seth Motel and Eileen Patten, both Research Assistants at the Pew Hispanic Center, is available at the Pew Hispanic Center’s website, www.pewhispanic.org.
The Pew Hispanic Center, a project of the Pew Research Center, is a nonpartisan, non-advocacy research organization based in Washington, D.C. and is funded by The Pew Charitable Trusts.